Basic Facts About Bangladesh

      Bangladesh is located in the delta of the Padma (Ganges [Ganga]) and Jamuna (Brahmaputra) rivers in the northeastern part of South Asia. It is bordered by the Indian states of West Bengal to the west and north, Assam to the north, Meghalaya to the north and northeast, and Tripura and Mizoram to the east. To the southeast, it shares a boundary with Myanmar (Burma). The southern part of Bangladesh opens into the Bay of Bengal. In its southern region, Bangladesh is fringed by the Sunderbans, a huge expanse of marshy deltaic forest.

            Modern day Bangladesh was part of the Mughal Empire until the arrival of the British East India Company. When the British left in 1947, it became the eastern wing of Pakistan. Bangladesh became an independent country in 1971 after nine months of war of independence under the leadership of the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. In last one-decade Bangladesh has experienced huge economic growth due to sound macroeconomic management and massive investment in human resources and infrastructures. The economy of the country is growing close to 8% in last two fiscal years. Goldman Sachs branded Bangladesh in ‘Next 11’-list after the BRIC nations

Goverment

Official Name

People’s Republic of Bangladesh

System of Government

Parliamentary democracy: The President is the Head of State while the Government is headed by the Prime Minister.

Capital

Dhaka

Official Language

Bangla (Bengali) is the official language; However, English, as second language, is widely spoken and used in medium of instructions and business communications across the country.

Independence Day

26 March 1971

National Anthem

“Amar Sonar Bangla” (My Golden Bengal)

Nationality

Bangladeshi

Name of Currency

Taka

Administrative Divisions

8 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet

Business hours:

9:00 am to 5:00 pm; Sunday to Thursday.

Friday and Saturday are weekly holidays

Standard Time

GMT+6hours

People and Society

Population

162.7 Million (2017 est.)

Male

81.4 Million (2017 est.)

Female

81.3 Million (2017 est)

Population Growth Rate

1.34

Life Expectancy at Birth

72

Male

70.6

Female

73.5

Literacy Rate (7+years)

72.3

Mother Tongue

Bangla (Bengali) 98.8%, other 1.2% (2011 est.)

Ethnic Groups

Bengali at least 98%, other indigenous ethnic groups 1.1% (2011 est.)

Religion

Muslim 89.1%, Hindu 10%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist, Christian) (2013 est.)

Geography

Location

South Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Myanmar (Burma) and India. North: India, West: India, South: Bay of Bengal and East: India and Myanmar

Land Boundaries

Total: 4,413 km (Bangladesh – Myanmar:271 km and Bangladesh – India 4142 km)

Area

56,977 sq. miles or 147,570 sq. km (2017 Est)

Geographic Coordinates

Between 200 34′ and 260 38′ north latitude and between 880 01′ and 92041′ east longitude.

Maritime Claims

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Main Rivers

Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, Teesta, Surma, Kusiara, Feni and Karnaphuli (total 310 rivers including tributaries)

Climate

Tropical; Mild Winter (October to March); Hot, Humid Summer (March to June); Humid, Warm Rainy Monsoon (June to October)

Mean Seasons

Spring (February-March), Summer (April-June), Monsoon (July-September), Autumn (October-November) and Winter (December-January)

Terrain

Mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Natural resources

Natural Gas, Limestone, White Clay, Hard Rock, Arable land, Timber, Coal

Principal Crops and Fruits

Rice, Jute, Wheat, Tobacco, Pulses, Sugarcane, Oil Seeds, Spices, Vegetables, Potatoes, Jack-fruit, Banana, Mango, Coconut, Pineapple

Land Use

Agricultural Land: 70.1% (2016 est.), Forest: 11.1% (2016 est.) and Other: 18.8% (2016 est.)

Communication and Transportation

Telephone – Fixed Lines

1,449,646

Telephone – Mobile Cellular

161,771,617

Internet Users

28,499,324

Broadband

10,237,003

Railway

2,460 km (2014)

Roadways

369,105 km (2018)

Waterways

8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season)

Airports

Bangladesh has 8 domestic airports, 3 international airports (which are also used for domestic flights) and 4 STOL (Short Take-off and Landing) ports

International Airports: Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet

Domestic Airports: Cox’s Bazar, Jessore, Rajshahi, Syedpur, Barisal, Iswardi, Comilla and Thakurgaon

Seaports

Chittagong and Mongla. Paira Port is under construction

Economy

GDP

US$347.991 billion in nominal terms (IMF 2019 Est)

US$860.916 billion in purchasing power parity (PPP) (IMF 2019 Est)

GDP Growth

8.13 % (2018-2019 FY Est)

7.86 % (2017-2018 FY Est)

GDP Rank

39th (nominal, 2019)

30th (PPP, 2020)

 

GDP Per Capita

US$2,068 (nominal, 2020 est)

US$5,453 (PPP, 2020 est.)

GDP by Sector

Agriculture (13.1%), Industry (27.8%) and Services (53.5%)

Employment by Sector

Agriculture (37.6%), Industry (21.4%) and Services (39.8%)

Inflation (CPI)

5.5% (IMF 2020 est.)

Main Industries

Textiles, Jute, Pharmaceuticals, Electronics, Food and Beverages, Cement, Tea, leather, Electrical Machinery, Ship Building and Ship Breaking, Ceramics, Glass, Paper, Iron Steel, Oil and Gas, Light Engineering, Bicycles and Automobile Assembling.

Exports

US$40.53 billion (July 2018-June 2019)

US$36.66 billion (July 2017-June 2018)

Export Goods

Knitwear, Woven Garments, Leather &Leather Products, Agricultural Products, Jute and Jute products (natural biodegradable fiber), Pharmaceuticals, Electrical and Electronic Goods, Ceramic Products, Bicycles, IT products, Frozen Foods (fish and seafood), Agricultural Products andOcean-going Feeder Vessels and Ferry Boats

Main Export Partners

Germany 12.9%, US 12.2%, UK 8.7%, Spain 5.3%, France 5.1%, Italy 4.1%

Imports

US$55.44 billion (July 2018- June 2019)

US$54.46 billion (July 2017- June 2018)

 

Import Goods

Capital Machinery, Cotton, Petroleum Products, Electrical Equipment, Iron and Steel, Plastic and Rubber Products, Vehicles, Metal and Metal Products, Chemicals, Mineral Products and Edible Oils

Main Import Partners

China 21.9%, India 15.3%, Singapore 5.7%, Hong Kong 5.5%

Remittances

US$16.4 billion (2018-2019 FY), US$14.98 Billion (2017-2018 FY)

Foreign Exchange Reserve

US$33.23 Billion (May 2020)